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Journal of Green Engineering

Editor-in-Chief: Michele Albano, ISEP - Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal

ISSN: 1904-4720 (Print Version),

ISSN: 2245-4586 (Online Version)
Vol: 7   Issue: Combined Issue 1 & 2

Published In:   January 2017

Publication Frequency: Quarterly

Search Available Volume and Issue for Journal of Green Engineering

Journal Description        Read Full Articles        Editorial Board        Subscription        Indexed

Performance Comparison of Reactive Power Controllers in Autonomous Wind-Diesel System

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7121
P. Sivachandran

Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, Chennai, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 33705KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: This paper presents an automatic reactive power control of autonomous winddiesel hybrid power systems (AWDHPS) by artificial neural network (ANN) controller tuned static var compensator (SVC). The real time assessment of such control was carried out using dSPACE R & D controller board. The proposed ANN controller was supported by multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (MPANN). The weights of proposed MPANN were restructured by intensive learning process. The back propagation equations were used to dynamically regulate the weights of proposed MPANN controller. Three models ofAWDHPSwere considered in the study. The disturbance parameters in the models were the change in reactive power of the load (ΔQL), the change in mechanical power input of the single induction generator (ΔPIW) and the change in mechanical power input of two induction generators (ΔPIW1, ΔPIW2) respectively. The parameters were dynamically varied in control desk of dSPACE Software with DS1104 R & D controller board mounted in personal computer under real time environment. The static and dynamic response curves were depicted. The reactive power deviations realized using the proposed MPANN controller was found to be very less compared to the deviations shown in ANN controller present in literature. The time domain specifications ofSVCobtained by the proposedMPANNcontroller were better than a Proportional plus Integral (PI) controller.

Keywords: dSPACE, Neural Networks, Reactive Power Control, Wind- Diesel System.

Support Vector Machine Based Classification of Current Transformer Saturation Phenomenon

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7122
N. G. Chothani1, D. D. Patel2 and K. D. Mistry2

1Electrical Department, A. D. Patel Institute of Technology, New Vallabh Vidhyanagar, Gujarat, India
2Electrical Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1478KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: During out of zone fault, Current Transformer (CT) saturation leads maloperation in unit type protective schemes. Detection and classification of saturation condition ofCTis still a challenging issue. Thus, it is most important to correctly categorize CT saturation condition to increase reliability and stability of protective schemes. The proposed scheme utilizes transmission line CT secondary post fault current signals (sliding window) as an input to SVM. In order to achieve the most optimized classifier, Gaussian Radial Basis Function (RBF) has been used for training of SVM. Feasibility of the proposed scheme has been tested by modelling a part of 220 kV power systems in PSCAD/EMTDC software package. The algorithm is executed in MATLAB software. More than 720 unsaturated and 3600 saturated cases with varying burden resistance, remnant flux, DC component of current, noise penetration to current signal and fault inception angle have been generated and used for validation of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme effectively discriminates between CTsaturated and unsaturated conditions with very high classification accuracy more than 99% for different parameter variations.

Keywords: CT Saturation, Burden Resistance, Remnant Flux, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Power System, Fault Condition.

Optimization of Renewable Energy Resources in Hybrid Energy Systems

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7123
S. Surender Reddy

Department of Railroad and Electrical Engineering, Woosong University, Daejeon-300718, Republic of Korea

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1072KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: This paper proposes the optimization of renewable energy resources (RERs) in the hybrid energy systems in a sustainable hybrid energy system. The behavior of renewable energy is uncertain and it is difficult for static optimization methods to optimize the uncertain non-stationary distributed energy resources in the hybrid system. A multi-objective based on the stochastic technique for optimizing total system losses and operating cost is formulated for the hybrid energy system. The proposed objective function aims to minimize the system losses and the total operating cost of RERs in different locations of the grid. In this paper, a next generation of grid connected RERs and load demand is proposed by considering the variability and uncertainty. Here, a robust stochastic approach is proposed by using the various probability distribution functions to represent the statistics of RERs. The simulation results of this paper handle the system operations under uncertainty. The proposed approach is tested on IEEE 37 node distribution system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach in the hybrid energy system.

Keywords: Renewable energy, Optimization, Hybrid energy systems, Probability distribution, Uncertainty.

Electric Load Forecasts by Metaheuristic Based Back Propagation Approach

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7124
Papia Ray1, Sabha Raj Arya2 and Shobhit Nandkeolyar1

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Odisha, India 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1168KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: The prediction of system load demands a day ahead or a week ahead is called Short Term Load Forecasting. Artificial Neural Network based STLF model has gained significance because of transparency in its modelling, simplicity of execution, and superiority of its performance. The neural model consists of weights whose optimal values are found out by means of different optimization techniques. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network trained by different methods like Back Propagation, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Cuckoo Search model and Bat algorithm is utilized for load forecasting.Athorough analysis of the different techniques is carried out here in order to assess their extent and capability to yield result, by means of dissimilar models, in altered situations. The simulation results indicate that Bat Algorithm based Back Propagation model leads to least forecasting error in comparison to other techniques. However, Cuckoo Search method based Back Propagation model also gives less error relatively, which is very much permissible.

Keywords: Short Term Load Forecasting, Metaheuristic, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Cuckoo Search, Bat Algorithm.

Comparison of SPWM,THIPWM and PDPWM Technique Based Voltage Source Inverters for Application in Renewable Energy

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7125
Lokesh Chaturvedi∗, D. K. Yadav and Gargi Pancholi

Department of Electrical Engineering, RTU, Kota – 324010

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 3025KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: In present time, the application of the voltage source inverter (VSI) are rapidly been increasing. Different designing methods are followed for the construction of VSI. The purpose of adopting for different techniques of inverter design is to decrease the harmonic contents from the output waves of VSI. Hence the comparison of three different voltage source inverters with their different techniques is discussed in this paper for the purpose of reduction in harmonics. Total harmonic distortion (THD) analysis of all three VSI has been done.THD analysis of sine pulse width modulation (SPWM) and third harmonic injection pulse width modulation (THIPWM) is further discussed in two manners – over modulation and exact modulation. A unique type of 7 level 5 switch voltage source multi-level inverter with phase disposition pulse width modulation (PDPWM) technique is also discussed and its comparison is made with earlier two techniques. In renewable energy systems, we need to control the power generation in a very efficient manner. Hence these inverters with low THD values can be utilized in that field for reduction in losses and increase in efficiency of the renewable system. Simulation of all three techniques based VSI is done on MATLAB platform and THD is compared.


Performance Metrics of Grid Connected Solar PV Power Plant – A Practical Case Study

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7126
P. Rajesh Kumar, D. Koteswara Raju, Rajib Kumar Kar and V. Vimala Devi

CVR College of Engineering, Hyderabad, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 4782KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: In this research article, the performance metrics (Performance Ratio, Capacity Utilisation Factor and System efficiency) of Grid connected solar plants are defined and significance of each metric is discussed thoroughly. The performance metrics of 120kWp on the rooftop of PG Block and 20kWp on the rooftop of Library block, which are commissioned in CVR College of Engineering are calculated and analyzed for a period of one year. In this research work more emphasise is given to three performance metrics namely Capacity Utilization Factor (CUF), Performance Ratio (PR) and System Efficiency (SE). The calculated results of Performance metrics reveal that performance of both power plants are almost similar to one another in maximum number of months in an year with slight change in their values and for few months their values are much deviated from one another. Exact reasons are investigated for this sort of performance. The calculated values of Performance Metrics of both these plants are well above the solar industry standards and can compete with values of Megawatt scale PV plants.

Keywords: Capacity Utilization Factor (CUF), Grid Connected Solar PV Plant, Performance Metrics, Performance Ratio (PR), System Efficiency (SE), Point of Common Coupling (PCC).

Modeling, Simulation and Control of Fuel Cell Based Micro Grid

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7127
Shikha Gupta, Rachana Garg and Alka Singh

Delhi Technological University, EED, Shahabad Daultpur, Bawana Road, Delhi 110042, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 463KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: In near future, fuel cell (FC) based power generation system will witness higher scalability due to merits like reliability, portability and negligible environmental impact. This paper presents grid integrated fuel cell generator as micro grid and interacts with modeling and simulation of control architecture (voltage, active and reactive power) along with vital design aspect of interface filter. The fuel cell system output is connected to current controlled voltage source converter (VSC) which controls active and reactive power. Power balance control theory (PBCT) is used to generate gate pulses for VSC. Hybrid fuzzy PI controller is used to attain constant DC link voltage. Simulation of entire system based on fuel cells is undertaken through MATLAB/Simulink software. PBCT and synchronous reference frame theory (SRFT) control strategies are also compared for grid connected FC system.

Keywords: SOFC, Power balance control theory, voltage source converter (VSC), hybrid FLC, renewable energy sources.

Power Generation Using Fuel Cell in the Application of Sensor Power Supply

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7128
Sabha Raj Arya, Nunsavath Sharath Kumar and B. R. Ananthapadmanabha

Department of Electrical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, Gujarat, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 961KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: Due to the growing demand for energy sets concern for the researchers to emphasize power generation through non-conventional sources because of their advantages over conventional source. This leads towards the intense research work carried out on fuel cells. Fuel cells have the ability of supplying electricity in the situation where the scope of conventional or other non-conventional power generating option is difficult to implement. The other advantages are transportability, flexibility, suitability and environment friendly operation. The particular advantage of transportability is well utilized in distributed power applications such as on board power supplies. This paper focuses on a low power converter energized by a fuel cell. It gives an overview of modelling of fuel cell and flyback converter with its different topologies that can be used in sensor application. Here different topologies of flyback converter are taken into consideration and out of these different topologies, the highest efficiency topology is chosen to supply power to the sensors and thereby its performance is tested. This converter is compared with the conventional method of supplying power to the sensor board and their performance is observed in terms of efficiency and other parameters. The simulation results are discussed and the performance is validated through experimental results.

Keywords: Fuel cell, Flyback converter, Active clamp, Sensor, RCD snubber, Interleave, Two switch.

Enhancement of PQ Using Adaptive Theory based Improved Linear Tracer Sinusoidal Control Strategy for DVR

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.7129
J. Bangarraju1, V. Rajagopal2, Sabha Raj Arya3 and B. Subhash4

1B V Raju Institute of Technology, Narsapur, Medak District, Telangana, India-502313
2Stanley College of Engineering and Technology for Women, Abids, Hyderabad, India-500001
3S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India-395007
4S. R. Engineering College, Warangal, Telangana, India-506371

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 819KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: This paper presents the Adaptive Theory based Improved Linear Tracer Sinusoidal (ATILS) Control Strategy for PQ Enhancement using DVR in the Distribution System. The proposed DVR effectively mitigates voltage sag/swell, unbalanced voltage sag/swell for linear loads along with harmonic compensation using ATILS Control Strategy. The DVR consists of voltage source converter (VSC), transformer with capacitor. The main advantages are more efficiency, reliability and its effective control of reactive power. The ATILS Control Strategy is used for extraction of fundamental reference load voltages quickly and accurately to mitigate PQ problems. The proposed ATILS Control Strategy for DVR is modeled using RT-LAB and MATLAB/SIMULINK and its performance is verified for various Power Quality (PQ) problems.

Keywords: DVR, ATILS Control Strategy, Power Quality, Harmonics, Voltage sag/swell.

A Comprehensive Review on Grid-Tied Solar Photovoltaic System

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.71210
Ajay Kumar, Nitin Gupta and Vikas Gupta

Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 815KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: Energy generation is facing a big challenge for meeting the load demand during peak hours. Power utilities are heavily depending on fossil fuels due to limited resources of non renewable energy generation. Therefore researchers and scientists are looking towards some distributed generators (DGs) to supply extra power during peak hours of energy curve. Solar power gives them an extra sniff to meet the load demand in that period. As a consequence grid-tied solar Photovoltaic (PV) system catches the eyes of researchers and industrialist mainly for reducing the burden of fossil fuel energy generation. Single stage or two stages PV systems are applicable for grid interconnection with or without battery backup. Double stage system is generally suggested for practical applications as it holds a benefit of power quality improvement. This article presents a comprehensive review on grid-tied solar PV system. The complete architecture of the grid-tied PV system includes the construction of PV array, MPPT methods, DC-DC converters, Inverters and control algorithms. Different control techniques and topologies with their merits and demerits for grid-tied systems are thoroughly reviewed. The comparisons of different conventional and advanced control techniques justify the practicability of this architecture. Different topologies and control methods of grid-tied PV system are studied thoroughly to justify the potential of grid-tied PV system.

Keywords: Grid Integration, Solar Photovoltaic, PVArray, Maximum Power Point Tracking, DC-DC converter, Inverter.

Electric Vehicle Battery Charger with Improved Power Quality Cuk-Derived PFC Converter

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.71211
B. R. Ananthapadmanabha,1 Rakesh Maurya,1 Sabha Raj Arya1 and B. Chitti Babu2

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, India
2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Nottingham (U.K) Malaysia Campus, 43500-Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1012KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: In this paper, an improved power quality converter derived from Cuk converter is proposed for the electric vehicle battery charging under universal-input voltage operation. The proposed converter offers high voltage gain, low voltage stress across the switch, lower conduction losses and reverse recovery losses during low input voltage condition. It yields improvement in efficiency at the low input supply voltage over the single-switch converters such as buck-boost, fly-back, SEPIC, and Cuk topologies and two-switch buck-boost cascaded converters. The proposed converter is designed to operate in a continuous conduction mode. The modeling and simulation of converter are carried out in the Simulink environment ofMATLABsoftware. The developed simulink model is validated by a prototype model of same specification using Xilinx made Spartan3 processor under MATLAB environment in real time. To investigate the performance of the converter in terms of power quality indices like THD, input PF of source voltage and source current are evaluated under constant voltage and constant current modes of battery charging, for wide range of supply voltage variations. The performance of the converter is tested both in steady state and transient conditions.

Keywords: Cuk converter, Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), Battery charging, Harmonics, Power Factor Correction (PFC).

Grid Connected Fuel Cell Based Distributed Power Generation System

doi: 10.13052/jge1904-4720.71212
Sabha Raj Arya and Nunsavath Sharath Kumar

Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 682KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: Fuel cell based power generation is emphasized due to its capability of supplying electricity in the areas where there are hardly any source of conventional or non-conventional power generating options to adopt. Moreover, the added advantage is that it can be used during peak loads. Fuel cell based power generation is well known due to its clean operation, transportability, suitability and flexibility for power generation. This paper gives the outlook of modeling of a fuel cell power generation system, a multilevel inverter and their control algorithms. The design system is used in isolated loads as well as grid connected system. Different carrier signals have been used with two different modulating signals for multilevel inverter for lowest Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the output using seven levels and eleven level inverters. The inverter output is fed to consumer loads. The MATLAB/SIMULINK software is used for modeling this system. The developed fuel cell based distributed power generation system worked satisfactorily, when it is connected to grid and used in isolated mode or hybrid mode.

Keywords: Fuel cell, Multilevel inverter, modulation index, modulation schemes, Total harmonic distortion (THD).

River Publishers: Journal of Green Engineering