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Nordic and Baltic Journal of Information and Communications Technologies

Editor-in-Chief: Knud Erik Skouby , center for Communication, Media and Information technologies (CMI), Aalborg University- Copenhagen

Reza Tadayoni, CMI


ISSN: 1902-097X (Print Version),

ISSN: 1902-0988 (Online Version)
Vol: 2017   Issue: 1

Published In:   September 2017

Publication Frequency: Continuous Article Publication


Search Available Volume and Issue for Nordic and Baltic Journal of Information and Communications Technologies


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Improve Google Loon’s Indoor LTE Coverage in Rural Africa by Using Passive Repeaters

doi: 10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2017.006
P. Lynggaard

CMI, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1632KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: Providing LTE connectivity to rural areas in Africa is a very challenging task that has been addressed with many different solution-models over the years. One model that seems to offer a sustainable business case is based on the Google ‘Loon’ LTE project, which provides many advantages. This solution, however, has a major disadvantage in form of a limited coverage, especially within the homes where the wall attenuation disrupts the signal. This paper provides a solution to this problem in form of deploying a cheap, simple, and passive repeater that enables indoor communication. By simulating the LTE radio-link between a Google ‘Loon’ base station and a user positioned inside a home, it has been found that the passive repeater lowers the wall attenuation considerably and thereby enables indoor communication.

Keywords: LTE-coverage, Passive-repeaters, Google-Loon, wall-attenuation and path-loss.

Digital Terrestrial TV: Allocation of Resources and Licensing – A Cross Country Study of Selected EU Countries

doi: 10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2017.005
Reza Tadayoni, Knud Erik Skouby and Anders Henten

Center for Communication, Media and Information Technology, CMI, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 373KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: The paper provides an overview of the digital terrestrial TV in 11 selected EU countries with different number of TV channels available in the terrestrial networks. The idea is to discuss the reasons for these differences and the parameters that affect the number of TV channels/services in different countries. The paper discusses to what extent economic, social and political interests, framing the analogue era, continue to influence the organizational and institutional set-up when switching to digital TV. From a purely technological point of view, one would expect that the number of TV channels made available in the different countries with given spectrum resources would vary only a little taking cross-border frequency interference into consideration. In fact, there are large differences between the various countries, which can be explained by the differences in economic, social and political interests and a certain degree of pathdependence in the organizational and institutional set-up in the different countries.

Keywords: Digital TV, Convergence, Multiplex operator, Spectrum resources, Digital dividend, Regulatory framework, MUX, HDTV.

Policy Foundation of the Ghana Telecom Industry

doi: 10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2017.004
Alexander Osei-Owusu

Department of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1494KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: Drawing on institutional theory, the paper aims at improving the understanding and explanation of the processes of reform of Ghana’s telecom industry as well as the policy and governance initiatives that have contributed to shaping the industry today. The research question of the paper is concerned with how the developments of the policy and governance foundation have affected the development trends and structures of the telecom industry in Ghana. This involves a periodization of the different policy and governance initiatives.

The paper identifies two major periods and their various levels of governance, from the decentral era where management of the sector was vested in the traditional chiefs followed by the municipalities/districts to the centralization era where powers were moved to, first, theWorks and Housing Department and later the Ministry of Communications and the regulatory agency in connection with the liberalization of the sector.

Within the era of liberalization, the paper identifies three main policy directions: 1) A market liberalization period (1997–2007) where Westel Ltd. was introduced into the fixed line market and where Spacefon, Celltell and Mobitel all were introduced to the cellular telephony market; 2) an infrastructure expansion period starting at the beginning of 2008, where the overall policy was increasingly directed towards infrastructure development with infrastructure licensing of international tower companies; and 3) a new period having started recently from the beginning of 2011 and up to date, with policy initiatives being directed at consumer protection and projects such as mobile number portability and SIM card identification.

The application of institutional theory provides the basis for an improved understanding of the sector reforms including the identification of poor performance of the GP&T, strong government manipulation without any opposition in parliament, weak workers’ unions, and a general policy apathy as key endogenous factors affecting the reform process, while international bodies, donor communities and other external agreements constitute important exogenous factors.

Keywords: Institutional theory, telecom reform, transitional reform, nationalization, denationalization.

Individual Online Privacy Management among Polish Internet Users – Outline of Issues and Research Review

doi: 10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2017.003
Malwina Popiołek1 and Maciej Czaplewski2

1Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland
2University of Szczecin, Poland

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 162KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: The paper describes an outline of selected issues connected with online privacy management in Poland. It deals with the problem of theoretical contexts of the subject and presents the concept of Individual Online Privacy Management. It also shows the legal status concerning privacy regulations in Poland. The article also provides a brief overview of research, concerning how Polish society respond to changes in law, which are related to online privacy.

Keywords: Internet Privacy, Individual Privacy Management, cyber security, privacy protection, personal data protection.

The Analysis of Selected Issues Pertaining to E-Administration in Poland in the Context of Smart City

doi: 10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2017.002
Agnieszka Budziewicz-Guźlecka and Anna Drab-Kurowska

University of Szczecin, Poland

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 573KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: The article attempts to answer the question regarding the implementation of the smart city concept in the context of e-administration and its influence on smart and sustainable development. It should be noted that the use of IT in the public administration in Poland is at an early stage of development.1 The level of e-services is still low, and the major part of the administration remains at the second level of e-services maturity (Interaction – the user can communicate electronically with individual offices, but offices do not always communicate via the web with the user).

The analysis of the research material indicates that at the moment a vast majority of Polish cities fits into the Smart City 2.0 model, in other words their local administrations cautiously use modern technologies to improve the quality of life for citizens. It is also possible to state that several of them aspires to advance to the third generation of smart cities.

Keywords: public administration, e-government, e-administration, smart city, new technologies, information society.

Domesticating the Monster – The Case of Uber in a Social Contract Perspective

doi: 10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2017.001
Iwona Windekilde and Anders Henten

Center for Communication, Media and Information technologies (CMI), Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 199KB ]   |    Read Article Online

Abstract: Uber is just one of the many platform companies growing up currently, but it is certainly one of the most prominent ones and one of the most discussed examples. Uber has created a great deal of antagonism and labor market conflicts around the world. The reason is that Uber-orchestrated services directly substitute for existing taxi business models and regulations and they undermine existing social arrangements including labor rights and tax payments.

The approach taken in the paper is concerned with social contracting. Social contracting and theories on social contracts have been known for long, but there is also a new social contract theory discussion on how to deal with labor markets where there is an increasing degree of seemingly ‘independent contractors’. This is a development which has many societal roots among them being that ICT platforms reduce transaction costs between individual agents in markets and thus facilitate a larger degree of individualized ‘economic agents’ (laborers) in markets. This poses great challenges and even threats to existing labor relations and regulations. The contribution of the paper is to make a first attempt at grounding the discussion of these challenges and threats in a social contract perspective.

Keywords: Social Contract Theories, ICT platforms, Transaction costs.

River Publishers: Nordic and Baltic Journal of Information and Communications Technologies