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The Human Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflex

Author: Ken Steffen Frahm, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark

ISBN: 9788792982698 (Paperback)
e-ISBN: 9788792982681

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/rp-9788792982681

Price: Notify Me

Available: December 2013
Downloads: [1558]

Downloads: [1558]  
Technical | Layman

Layman Description:

The human nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) is a valuable tool in both pain research and pain diagnostics. To assess the reflex, electrical stimulation is applied to the sole of the foot and the muscle response in the lower leg is measured using electromyography (EMG). Today the basic methodology suffers from high variability, preventing the NWR to be routinely used in the clinic. In this PhD thesis the basic methodology underlying the assessment of the NWR is analyzed. The first study focused on the recording of the reflex using EMG in order to try and find the most optimal setup for recording the NWR. The second study investigated whether the nerve activation differed across the sole of the foot and investigated any differences using a mathematical model. The third study investigated the type of nerve fiber in the skin was different across the sole of the foot and finally the model from the second study was expanded and used to further analyze the activation of nerve fibers when administering electrical stimulation in the sole of the foot.


Sensory-Motor interaction