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International Journal of Translational ScienceJournal discontinued 2017

Editors-in-Chief:

Pranela Rameshwar, Rutgers University, USA
Nicholas M. Ponzio, Rutgers University, USA


ISSN: 2246-8765 (Online Version)
Vol: 2015   Issue: 1

Published In:   April 2015

Publication Frequency: Continuous Article Publication


Search Available Volume and Issue for International Journal of Translational ScienceJournal discontinued 2017


Stromal Carcinoma Associated Fibroblasts Promote Drug Resistance of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Modulation of ROS via CXCR4/CXCL12 Signaling

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/ijts2246-8765.20151006
Ahlim Alsanani, Brij B. Patel, Sarah Wondisford, Nadine Johnson and Debabrata Banerjee

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences, 675 Hoes Lane West, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 3314KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive malignancies, with a 5-year overall survival of less than 5%. Tumor drug resistance to conventional chemotherapy, such as Gemcitabine, is often a significant contributor to poor overall survival. One of the common mechanisms of Gemcitabine resistance is activation of cell signaling via increased phosphorylation of mitogen-Activated kinase (MAP) kinases, leading to increased tumor survival and reduced sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. A growing body of evidence suggests that the CXCL12/CXCR4 signal transduction axis in the tumor microenvironment is an important mediator of tumor migration, growth, and drug resistance. We hypothesized that stromal cells such as carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), an important cellular component of the tumor microenvironment (TME), play a contributory role in the growth, invasiveness, and drug response of pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs)

Stem Cell Therapy for Brain Tumors

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/ijts2246-8765.20151005
Alexander Aleynik and Pranela Rameshwar

Department of Medicine – Division of Hematology/Oncology, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, NJ 07103, USA

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 870KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and lethal brain cancer, prognosis remains bleak with a median survival of about 15 months despite maximal surgical resection, radiotherapy, and temozolomide treatment. The difficulty associated with safely and effectively delivering therapeutics across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major challenge towards GBM treatment. Ongoing research and clinical trials, including attempts to deliver therapeutics within stem cells present possible solutions. The relationships between brain cancer pathology, stem cell properties, therapeutic advantages and disadvantages of various stem cell types, drug delivery methods, cancer stem cells, gene therapy, anti-cancer vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor therapies, and combination therapies are discussed.

Keywords: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), blood brain barrier (BBB), World Health Organization (WHO), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Huntington’s Disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and devastating neural injuries such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI), Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), fetal stem cells (FSCs), umbilical cord blood stem cells (UCBSCs), mesenchymal

Developing Therapies with Functional Beta Cells to Treat Diabetes

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/ijts2246-8765.20151004
Yicheng Zhao

College of life science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1929KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: As the key regulator in maintaining blood sugar, insulin is produced by beta cells residing in pancreatic islets. However, beta cells are mostly destroyed in type I diabetes, and the beta cells numbers are seriously reduced in type II diabetes. Over the last decade, insights into beta cell development, combined with the deeper research of related donor stem cells including ESCs, iPSCs and pancreatic progenitors, have led us to generate functional beta cells. Besides, several alternative approaches have also converted other cell types into insulin positive beta-like cells via lineage reprogramming factors (Pdx1, Nkx6-1, Pax4 and Ngn3). Nowadays, people realized that advances in investigating of beta cell biology at the genomic and post-transcription levels are more useful in deeply understanding the cells source, behaviour and function. For research in drug screening or diabetes transplantation therapy, herein, we reviewed the recent information about development, replication of beta cells, and production of insulin-positive cells via lineage reprogramming or small molecule treatment.

Keywords: Pdx1, Nkx6-1

Therapeutic immunomodulation with mesenchymal stromal cells: the need for in vivo clues

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/ijts2246-8765.2015.003
L. Dolcetti and F. Dazzi

Department of Haematological Medicine, King’s College London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 403KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells are effective therapeutic agents for a variety of pathological conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their action remain largely unknown and biased by in vitro studies. In this concise review we have described recent advances in MSC therapeutics based on in vivo observations. We have also discussed the possibility of using engineering approaches to improve and facilitate deciphering MSC functions.

Keywords: Mesenchymal stem/ stromal cell, immunomodulation, immunosuppression, tolerance, scaffold, regenerative medicine.

Novel view of the adult stem cell compartment – of germline and parental imprintingthis item has been withdrawn at the request of its authors

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/ijts2246-8765.2015.002
Mariusz Z. Ratajczak, Gabriela Schneider and Malwina Suszynska.

Stem Cell Institute at James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, KY, USA

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 367KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Evidence has accumulated that adult tissues contain developmentally early stem cells that remain in a dormant state as well as stem cells that are more proliferative, supplying tissue-specific progenitor cells and thus playing a more active role in the turnover of adult tissues. Interestingly, evidence has accumulated in parallel that these most primitive, dormant, adult stem cells are regulated by epigenetic changes in the expression of certain parentally imprinted genes, a molecular phenomenon previously described for keeping primordial germ cells in a quiescent state. Specifically, the most primitive quiescent stem cells in bone marrow that can be committed to the hematopoietic lineage show erasure of imprinting at the Igf2–H19 locus, which keeps them in a quiescent state in a similar manner as primordial germ cells. Similar changes in expression of parentally imprinted genes may also play a role in the quiescence of dormant adult stem cells present in other non-hematopoietic tissues. However, this possibility requires further study.

Keywords: Adult stem cells, primordial germ cells, imprinted genes, Igf2–H19 locus, stem cell quiescence, tissue regeneration, tumorigenesis

Foreword

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/ijts2246-8765.2015.001
Pranela Rameshwar and Debu Banerjee

Rutgers University, USA

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 20KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Welcome the inaugural issue of the International Journal of Translational Science. The editors, along with the River publisher, believe that the time is right for the international society to have forum of translational science. Drs Rameshwar and Banerjee are the founding editors in chief. Together, they will manage the scientific content of the journal until an international search is conducted for an editor. The journal will focus on multi- and inter-disciplinary subjects with direct relevance to translation. Stem cells are at a cross road on the method, type and disease model to benefit patients. The journal will have a section devoted to this topic. Since key techniques are generally unpublished, scientists spend considerable time to develop the same techniques, which delay the translation of the science to patients. To this end, the journal will have a section on lab techniques. It is our aim to convince the general scientific audience that this is not just another new journal but a much needed one in the field of translational science. Our mission statement is to promote international collaborations in translational science with special emphasis on interdisciplinary science. Our first issue will select articles to reflect the goals of the journal, and will include the opinion of leaders in the field of translational science. We hope that by introducing this new medium of communication, along with an excellent scientific board, we will encourage sound and timely scientific papers for a wide audience.

Keywords: International Journal of Translational Science

River Publishers: International Journal of Translational Science<sup><font color=#f91b02>Journal discontinued 2017</font></sup>