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Journal of Green EngineeringJournal divested in January 2019, new journal website is: www.jgenng.com

Editor-in-Chief: Michele Albano, ISEP - Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal

ISSN: 1904-4720 (Print Version),

ISSN: 2245-4586 (Online Version)
Vol: 4   Issue: 4

Published In:   July 2014

Publication Frequency: Quarterly

Search Available Volume and Issue for Journal of Green EngineeringJournal divested in January 2019, new journal website is: www.jgenng.com

Journal Description        Editorial Foreword        Read Full Articles        Editorial Board        Subscription        Indexed

The Natura 2000 Biogeographical Process

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.441
Neil McIntosh and Tamsin Burbidge

ECNC-European Centre for Nature Conservation and ECNC Land & Sea Group PO Box 90154, 5000 LG Tilburg, The Netherlands

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 964KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The Natura 2000 Biogeographical Process was launched by the European Commission in 2011 to assist Member States in managing Natura 2000 as a coherent ecological network. The primary purpose of the Natura 2000 Biogeographical Process is to assist Member States to meet legal obligations under the nature directives with respect to the favourable conservation status of habitats and species of community interest. Through the Natura 2000 Biogeographical Process, a key aim is to ensure that Member States and expert stakeholders are enabled to realise collaborative networking events, associated information sharing and cooperative knowledge building activities, linked to common strategic priorities. The EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy calls for a step change in efforts to halt the loss of biodiversity and to restore essential services that a healthy natural environment provides.

Keywords: Biogeographical Process was launched by the European Commission

Forest Operations and Ecosystems Services in Norway – A Review of the Issues at Hand and the Opportunities Offered through NewTechnologies

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.442
Bruce Talbot1 and Rasmus Astrup2

1Department of Forest Technology, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway
2Department of Forest Resources, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1472KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: It is widely recognized that forests should be managed inter alia for the provision of timber, biomass for energy, bio-chemicals, biological diversity, carbon storage, water purification, outdoor recreation and other ecosystem services. Forest operations are the most costly part of forest management and at the same time can be traced to most of the negative externalities on the environment often with strong visual impacts, especially in steep terrain. This paper reviews emerging technology-based engineering solutions that may reduce the impact of forest operations on the environment while increasing the efficiency of operations resulting in an overall higher level of forest ecosystem service provision. Advances in forest machine control and automation systems, and the availability of remotely-sensed high resolution data now provide considerable potential to improve the management and precision of forest operations. Improved planning procedures and more precise operations offer a considerable opportunity for mitigating environmental damage. Accurate positioning of operations machinery allows for the generation of automated warnings in the case of transgressing property or key habitat boundaries. Terrain models derived from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have been shown to be useful in locating effective extraction trails or timber landings, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing site impact such as rutting and compaction.

Keywords: Timber harvesting, logging, forest operations, environmental impact.

A Process Perspective on the Timber Transport Vehicle Routing Problem

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.443
Jonas Lindström1 and Dag Fjeld2

1Södra Skog, Billingsfors, Sweden
2Faculty of Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 595KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The aim of this study was to map how the timber transport vehicle routing problem was solved in practice and which consequences different ways of solving the problem had for service and efficiency. A process perspective was employed for the mapping and the ways of solving the routing problem were expressed in terms of a series of planning and control activities. Fifteen haulage contractors from the Södra Skogägarna forest owners association were selected for the mapping. The mapping resulted in a basic process model and 2 main variants. Key performance indicators for both service and economic efficiency were collected for a one-year period. The contractors’ service levels to suppliers were measured by the proportion of transport orders completed within a specified period. The contractors’ economic efficiency was measured by their net operating margin. The results show that contractor net operating margins decreased (from 15% to 1%) with increasing levels of supplier service (from 89.5 to 97% of orders completed within 5 weeks).Within this gradient, those using the complete process model had an average net operating margin of 4.1%. Those using a simplified model (with fewer service restrictions) had an average margin of 9.2%.

Keywords: haulage contractors, truck routing, service levels, economic efficiency.

Implementing Green Infrastructure and Ecological Networks in Europe: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.444
K. Čivic1 and L. M. Jones-Walters2

1ECNC-European Centre for Nature Conservation, Reitseplein 3, PO Box 90154, 5000LG Tilburg, the Netherlands
2Alterra, Wageningen UR, Wageningen Campus, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 233KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The impact of landscape fragmentation is well recognised as one of the key contributors to the past and present decline in European wildlife. Ecological networks were seen as a solution to this problem and have been the subject of research, policy and practice for nearly 40 years; resulting in many examples of best practice and lessons learned. More recently the European Commission has introduced the concept of Green Infrastructure (GI) which retains the frame work of ecological networks at its core but which offers a more sophisticated integration of economic and social factors and the delivery of a range of ecosystem services. GI has already been included as a concept in EU strategy and offers much for future policy making and delivery of sectoral integration. The views of stakeholders indicate that there a number of key areas for improvement but confirm the potential of the concept. Further work should consider the practicalities of the full translation of the protected area networks into functional ecological networks and making them integral building blocks of the green infrastructure both at the level of policy and practice. In addition information about how to create actual ecological networks at the delivery level, particularly where this has involved stakeholder and public participation needs to be researched and made widely available. The issue of communication; specifically to politicians and decision makers within key sectors (such as spatial planning, transport, industry, etc.) but more widely to researchers, conservation practitioners, businesses and the interested public remain to be fully addressed.

Keywords: ecological networks, green infrastructure, ecosystem services, climate change, resource efficiency, innovation.

Machine Utilization Rates, Energy Requirements and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Forest Road Construction and Maintenance in Romanian Mountain Forests

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.445
A. Enache and K. Stampfer

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 2174KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The FAO and EU forest strategies advocate the use of forest resources in ways which minimize the impact on the environment and climate. However, in forests with poor accessibility, the environmental footprint of forest operations is significant due to the long timber extraction distances. Thus, improving the environmental performance of forest operations requires a well-developed forest infrastructure, specifically the density and quality of roads. The aim of this paper was to assess the environmental footprint of forest roads in terms of embodied energy and greenhouse gas emissions due to construction and maintenance. In this respect, life cycle assessment approach was used to develop an input-output model for benchmarking two case study areas, considering real machine utilization rates, fuel consumption and labor requirements. The forest road life cycle was set to 30 years. Direct energy requirements derived from the fuel consumed by the machinery were considered. Construction and maintenance required energy inputs of 490.9 MJ m-1 and 580.4 MJ m-1, respectively about 36.6 kg CO2eq m-1 and 43.1 kg CO2eq m-1 emission rates in the two case study areas, while occupying productive land with forest roads triggered a loss of 3.95 kg CO2eq m-1 y-1 and 4.40 kg CO2eq m-1 y-1 during the life cycle of the forest road. However, the CO2eq loss due to road construction and maintenance is insignificant when compared to the CO2eq stored in the growing stock of the opened forest area. Terrain characteristics showed a strong influence on the amount of fuel consumption, required energy input and GHG emissions, leading to higher environmental burden and higher road construction costs.

Keywords: Emissions, energy efficiency, forest, greenhouse gases, LCA, road construction, Romania.

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