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Journal of Green EngineeringJournal divested in January 2019, new journal website is: www.jgenng.com

Editor-in-Chief: Michele Albano, ISEP - Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal

ISSN: 1904-4720 (Print Version),

ISSN: 2245-4586 (Online Version)
Vol: 5   Issue: 2

Published In:   April 2015

Publication Frequency: Quarterly

Search Available Volume and Issue for Journal of Green EngineeringJournal divested in January 2019, new journal website is: www.jgenng.com

Journal Description        Read Full Articles        Editorial Board        Subscription        Indexed

Quality of Service Aware Multi-Hop Relay Networks for Green Radio Communication

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.521
M. Arthi, P. Arulmozhivarman and K. Vinoth Babu

School of Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 2084KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: In recent years, issues on greenhouse pollution and power consumption related to the operation of information communication technology (ICT) devices have triggered a huge amount of research work towards green radio communication. Many of the power efficient solutions will introduce cost performance trade-offs. The energy efficient solution which also takes care of the quality requests of the mobile customer is really required for the 5G based green radio communication. It is identified that enhanced nodeBs (eNB) are power inefficient and not suited for many deployment scenarios. Multihop relay (MHR) network is the suitable alternate for eNB especially in the coverage holes and cell edges. But MHR network suffers by various quality issues like site planning and path selection. Many of the site planning and path selection schemes will fail under network imbalance conditions. In this work, we have proposed a hybrid throughput oriented (TO) – load aware spectral efficient routing (LASER) scheme which offers high performance even under network load imbalance conditions. The simulation results proved that the proposed scheme is more suited for future green radio communication.

Keywords: Green radio, LASER, path selection, site planning, TO scheme.

Measurement of Power Radiation in Base Transceiver Station Using Quad Phone and Quadcopter

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.522
Prem Kumar N1, Raj Kumar A1, Sundra Anand1, E. N. Ganesh2 and V. Prithiviraj3

1Final year B.E. (ECE), Rajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India
2Dean R&I, Rajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India
3Professor, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engg (ECE), Rajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 6203KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The communication protocols used in BaseTransceiver Station (BTS) could be harmful to human species and other life forms in the ecosystem. The BTS used for these systems could emit radiations beyond safety threshold. Therefore, it is essential to monitor such power radiation levels from time to time. Manual readings at each BTS are strenuous and time consuming work. This paper proposes radiation measurement using Quad Phone assembled within the Quadcopter using android software. Quadcopter is a low cost restricted payload machine which suits the measurement of radiation emitted from antenna towers and power lines. An application is developed to monitor the power radiation emitted by each of the bands and the associated communication protocol by utilizing the Quad Phone. It can use CDMA, GSM, 3G and LTE protocols at the designated frequency bands.AQuad Phone incorporating the android application is used to record power radiation levels at several points around a single tower facilitated by the Quadcopter flight navigation system. TheWave Point navigation is a hardware module used to move around a target point up to 16 locations and circle back to the initial position. The collected data regarding the radiated signal strength for different protocols are either transmitted through wireless or stored within the Quad Phone which could be retrieved later. The power readings around each base station can be recorded using the Quad Phone and the Quadcopter in the shortest time possible. Hence the combination of the Quad Phone mounted on the Quadcopter provides an excellent monitoring system for auditing the Electromagnetic Radiation (ER) and subsequently determine the Electromagnetic Pollution Index (EPI) from the delineated pockets of pollution regions.

Keywords: Base Transceiver Station (BTS), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Global system for Mobile Communications (GSM), Wave point navigation, Global Positioning System (GPS), Electromagnetic Radiation (ER).

Lyapunov Optimization Based Cross Layer Approach for Green Cellular Network

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.523
L. Senthilkumar1,∗, M. Meenakshi2 and J. Vasantha Kumar3

1Research Scholar, Anna University, Chennai, India
2Professor, Anna University, Chennai, India
3Master graduate Student, Anna University, Chennai, India
*∗Corresponding Author

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1893KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Cross layer techniques are conventionally proposed for improving the network performance and recently many models have been proposed for improving energy efficiency. However most of these models have not considered all the fundamental Quality of service requirements along with the energy efficiency. Quality of Service and Queue Stability affect the energy consumption and network performance in every time slot of network operation. So an adaptive model is necessary to guarantee the Quality of service and Queue stability along with energy consumption. The proposed model applies the stochastic drift plus penalty method to optimize energy efficiency subject to Quality of Service and Queue stability constraints. The optimization technique in the proposed model does not require knowledge of channel density function. The simulation results suggest the improved energy efficiency of the proposed model.

Keywords: Cross layer, Quality of Service, stochastic drift plus penalty method, Energy efficiency, Queue Stability.

Environmental Hazards and Health Risks Associated with the Use of Mobile Phones

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/jge1904-4720.524
Manivannan Senthil Velmurugan

Research Scholar, D.B. Jain College, University of Madras, Chennai, India

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1149KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Mobile phones are universally popular due to their convenience. Mobile phones solve problems such as interacting with the people, transfer of data through offering new channels of communication by using a device small enough to fit into one hand. On the other hand, mobile phones may be harmful to the environment and health, and waste disposal issues may be associated with its discharge of radiation. Concerns have been raised recently about the sustainability of mobile phones and its effects on people’s health and the environment. The present study discusses the adverse effects associated in using mobile phones, and addresses sustainable perspectives to overcome the same.

Keywords: Mobile phone, hazards, environment, health and sustainable.

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