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Journal of ICT Standardization

Open Access

Editor-in-Chief: Anand R. Prasad, wenovator, Japan

Associate Editor: Sivabalan Arumugam, Rakuten Mobile Inc, Japan

ISSN: 2245-800X (Print Version),

ISSN: 2246-0853 (Online Version)
Vol: 6   Issue: Combined Special Issue 1 & 2

Published In:   May 2018

Publication Frequency: Triannual

Articles in 2020

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Editorial Foreword

Erik Guttman, Frank Mademann and Anand R. Prasad

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Every decade, telecommunications standards developers aspire to a new generation. Member companies in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) identify and work towards an expansion of the telecommunication industry. Collectively, 3GPP* takes on the task, drawing on the aspirations and insights of individual experts, member companies, partner Standard Developing Organizations (SDOs) and external organizations. The formal focus of this activity is the ITU-R IMT program. With IMT-2020, IMT-Advanced and now IMT-2020, a vision and expression of the aspiration of the coming generation is established. The IMT goals are both commercial and more general; as telecommunications have become central to social and cultural development across the world. These programs establish criteria for the radio network which are met by qualifying submissions. 3GPP’s 3rd generation was accepted for IMT-2000, and 4th generation for IMT-Advanced. 3GPP is hard at work now developing standards that will be submitted for the IMT-2020 program. The context and aspiration for 5G are well described in “Outlining the Roadmap to 5G” in this issue.

3GPP is a partnership project, bringing together SDOs from around the world. These SDOs formally transpose and release the standards specifications that 3GPP completes. This activity continually proceeds – maintaining existing standards through corrections and producing both new specifications and adding features to existing specifications to provide new features and functions. Different parts of the 3GPP organization work on the standards from different perspectives. Some working groups are further ahead, identifying requirements for new services and functions, others following by defining these features technically – maintaining compatibility with existing capabilities as necessary and not creating any incompatibilities, and still other working groups who complete the specifications at the protocol level. The partnership project therefore comprises committees at all phases of the work, simultaneously. Features are completed together as ‘releases.’ A release, beyond offering attractive new complete capabilities to the market, eases coordination of standards development activities and makes comprehensive testing possible. In the end, a major aspect of what 3GPP standards’ success lies in the emergence of equipment that is both compatible and compliant with the standard according to the specifications, initially when deployed and for years to come.

The first releases of 5G, leading to the IMT-2020 submission, are Release 15 (which is termed 5G Phase 1) and Release 16 (which is also called 5G Phase 2.) Release 16’s functional freeze date – also termed ‘stage 3 freeze’ will occur at the time that the IMT-2020 submission will be sent. At the time of the publication of this special issue on 3GPP 5G Standardization, 3GPP will have frozen Release 15 and already have determined the focus for work on Release 16.

5G standardization is an extended program whose goals extend from the short to the long term. The article “5G Requirements and key performance indicators” provides the background and outcome of the extensive work 3GPP completed on normative standards and identifying the goals for 3GPP’s 5G standardization program. 5G Phase 1 and Phase 2 description can also be found in this article.

The standards under development include the entire range of activity of 3GPP – across all TSGs and working groups. 3GPP will fully complete the standard sufficient to realize the IMT-2020 vision, though this will not occur in 5G Phase 1 and 2. The work will continue for several releases, extending the standard in compatible ways to satisfy ever more requirements. It is not yet fully clear what coming releases, past 5G Phase 2, will include. 3GPP continually re-examines and takes current market conditions and opportunities into account.

The articles in this special issue on “3GPP 5G Specifications” reflect the diverse progress and substance of the 5G standards. Some of these standards have already been completed and frozen – others are currently under development and will be finished over the coming months.

One area that greatly distinguishes each generation of 3GPP standards from the last is the innovation brought to the radio access network. “5G NR radio interface” provides an overview of this exciting new standard and how it relates to the IMT-2020 radio requirements. In addition, coexistence of NR and LTE is presented. The 5G Access Network (5G-AN) includes both LTE and NR radio access technologies. “NG Radio Access Network (NG-RAN)” takes a broader look at the 5G access system in which NR operates and in particular describes how the NG-RAN can be deployed in different scenarios to realize migration from LTE-based networks to 5G and NR. This paper also considers the overall 5G radio access architecture and its key interfaces and protocols.

Another area of significant development is the 5G Core Network (5GC) and overall system. “The 5G System Architecture” offers an introduction and explains some of its key characteristics. In “Path to 5G: A Control Plane Perspective” some of the most significant system developments from earlier generations to 5G are considered in more detail. “RESTful APIs for the 5G Service Based Architecture” explores how the 5GC internal communication has been specified using a RESTful design, and explains how the protocols and interfaces developed provide opportunities for future integration with other systems.

Finally, three articles concern 5G standards development that involves most aspects of the system – including radio, network, and end-to-end service delivery aspects. “5G Multimedia Standardization” covers evolution of streaming services and media delivery architecture for 5G – including Virtual Reality 360 video streaming, real-time speech and audio communications VR evolution and user generated multimedia content. “3GPP 5G Security” presents security aspects as they differ from the 4G (LTE) system – including several major security enhancements achieved, applied to every aspect of the NG-RAN, 5G-AN and 5GC, as well as end to end communication made possible by the 5G system. “Management, Orchestration and Charging in the New Era” surveys the range of standards under development for management and orchestration of the access network and core network, with particular attention on management of network slicing.

Though the articles in this volume cover much of the standards included in Release 15 and to be included and enhanced in Release 16, this does not provide a complete overview of all work. The reader will learn essential aspects and advances to the 3GPP standard and be in an excellent position to follow work as it proceeds in the years to come.

Outlining the Roadmap to 5G

Joe Barrett

CEO, Global mobile Suppliers Association, UK

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Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the background to the roadmap and evolution to 5G and the path the industry is taking to realise the benefits that will come from a mass industry deployment of this standardised mobile technology. 4G LTE network rollouts are continuing and new LTE features are being deployed to support both industry and user expectations for what 5G will deliver once the technology has been deployed.

Keywords: 3GPP, 5G, 4G, Trials, LTE, Ecosystem.

5G Requirements and Key Performance Indicators

Toon Norp

Chairman of 3GPP SA1 , Senior Business Consultant at TNO, Netherlands.

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Abstract: This paper presents an overview of 5G requirements as specified by 3GPP SA1. The main drivers for 5G were the requirement to provide more capacity and higher data rates and the requirement to support different ‘vertical’ sectors with ultra-reliable and low latency communication. The paper discusses basic requirements that are new for 5G and provides 5G performance requirements. The paper also discusses a number of vertical sectors that have influenced the 5G requirements work (V2X, mission critical, railway communication) and gives an overview of developments in 3GPP SA1 that will likely influence 5G specifications in the future.

Keywords: Mobile telecommunications, 5G, requirements, performance.

5G NR Radio Interface

Balazs Bertenyi1, Satoshi Nagata2, Havish Kooropaty3, Xutao Zhou4, Wanshi Chen5, Younsun Kim6, Xizeng Dai7 and Xiaodong Xu8

1Chairman of 3GPP TSG-RAN, Hungary
2Vice Chairman of 3GPP TSG-RAN , Japan
3Vice Chairman of 3GPP RAN1, Master Researcher at Ericsson Inc., San Francisco, USA
4Chairman of 3GPP RAN4, Engineer at Samsung R&D Center, Beijing, China
5Chairman of 3GPP RAN1, System Engineer at Ericsson, Greater San Diego, USA
6Vice Chairman of 3GPP RAN1, Head of Samsung RAN1 standards team, Korea
7Vice Chairman of 3GPP RAN4 ,Engineer at Huawei, Beijing City, China
8Vice chairman of 3GPP TSG-RAN, Principal Researcher at CMCC, China

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Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the 5G NR radio interface as specified by 3GPP. Specifically, the paper covers 5G NR in IMT2020 context, key design criteria and requirements, fundamental technology components of 5G NR, RF requirements and spectrum bands, Radio Resource Management and Link Monitoring and co-existence/sharing of 5G NR and LTE.

Keywords: 5G, NR, cellular radio technology, 3GPP, IMT2020, RRM, spectrum bands, mMTC, URLLC, eMBB.

NG Radio Access Network (NG-RAN)

Balazs Bertenyi1, Richard Burbidge2, Gino Masini3, Sasha Sirotkin4 and Yin Gao5

1Chairman of 3GPP TSG-RAN, Hungary
2Chairman of 3GPP RAN2, Senior Wireless Systems Architect at Intel Corporation, Shrivenham, Oxfordshire, UK
3Chairman of 3GPP RAN3, Systems Manager - Concepts and Standards at LM Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden
4Vice Chairman of 3GPP RAN3, Senior wireless architect at Intel Corporation, Israel
5Vice Chairman of 3GPP RAN3, ZTE Corporation, China

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Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the NG Radio Access Network (NG-RAN) architecture and key protocols. NG-RAN is the new RAN defined in conjunction with 5G by 3GPP. The paper presents the overall architecture, migration path options, the 5G base station architecture and key protocol components.

Keywords: 5G, NR, radio architecture, NG RAN, CU, DU, Xx, Xn, RRC, MAC, PDCP, RLC.

The 5G System Architecture

Frank Mademann

Chairman of 3GPP SA2, Huawei Technologies, German

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Abstract: This article provides an introduction to the 3GPP 5G system architecture and highlights its key features and characteristics.

Keywords: 3GPP, System Architecture, 5G.

Path to 5G: A Control Plane Perspective

Erik Guttman1 and Irfan Ali2

1Chairman of 3GPP TSG-SA, Samsung Electronics, Germany
2Senior 5G architect at Cisco Systems, USA

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Abstract: This paper provides an overview of some specific control plane functionality that has developed in the 3GPP architecture, from GPRS to EPC and now the 5G core network. Innovations of the 5G control plane are considered in the areas of selecting and maintaining the control plane topology, as well as the handling of state within the network.

Keywords: 3GPP, Telecommunications Core Networks, Control Signalling.

RESTful APIs for the 5G Service Based Architecture

Georg Mayer

Chairman of 3GPP TSG-CT, Huawei, Vienna, Austria

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Abstract: 5G sets out to be the global connectivity and integration platform for a broad variety of industries in the upcoming decade. In order to do so it not only needs to fulfil the requirements of these industries but must also ensure its tight integration into the digital infrastructure of the 2020s by embracing key technologies. This article shows how one of these key technologies, the RESTful design of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), is used in the 5G Service Based Architecture (SBA). The basic principles of modern API development are explained and it is shown how those integrate into the specific needs of the 5G Core Network.

Keywords: 5G, REST, application programming interfaces, 3GPP, service based architecture, SBA, northbound APIs, NAPS, HTTP.

5G Multimedia Standardization

Frédéric Gabin1, Gilles Teniou2, Nikolai Leung3 and Imre Varga4

1Chairman of 3GPP SA4, Standardisation Manager at Ericsson, France
2Vice Chairman of 3GPP SA4, Senior Standardization Manager at Orange, France
3Vice Chairman of 3GPP SA4, Director of Technical Standards at Qualcomm, Philippines
4Chairman of 3GPP SA4 EVS SWG, Director of Technical Standards at Qualcomm, Germany

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Abstract: In the past 10 years, the Smartphone device and its 4G Mobile Broadband Connection supported the now well-established era of video multimedia services. Future mass market multimedia services are expected to be highly immersive and interactive. This paper presents an overview of 5G multimedia aspects as specified by 3GPP for various services that will be provisioned over the 5G network. Specifically, we cover the evolution of streaming services for 5G, Virtual Reality 360◦ video streaming, real-time speech and audio communication servicesVRevolution and user generated multimedia content.

Keywords: AR, VR, Audio, Video, Codec, Immersive, Live, Streaming, Multimedia.

3GPP 5G Security

Anand R. Prasad1, Sivabalan Arumugam2, Sheeba B3 and Alf Zugenmaier4

1Chairman of 3GPP SA3, NEC Corporation, Japan
2,3NEC Technologies India Pvt. Ltd., India
4Vice Chairman of 3GPP SA3 & Rapporteur, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany

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Abstract: 5G is the next generation of mobile communication systems. As it is being finalized, the specification is stable enough to allow giving an overview. This paper presents the security aspects of the 5G system specified by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), especially highlighting the differences to the 4G (LTE) system. The most important 5G security enhancements are access agnostic primary authentication with home control, security key establishment and management, security for mobility, service based architecture security, inter-network security, privacy and security for services provided over 5G with secondary authentication.

Keywords: LTE, 5G, 5G Core, NR, Authentication, Services, Security, Privacy.

Management, Orchestration and Charging in the New Era

Thomas Tovinger1, Jean-Michel Cornily2, Maryse Gardella3, Chen Shan4, Chen Ai5, Anatoly Andrianov6, Joey Chou7, Jan Groenendijk8, Zhang Kai9, Zou Lan9, Xiaowen Sun5, Weixing Wang10, Zhu Weihong11 and Yizhi Yao7

1Chairman of 3GPP SA5, Ericsson, Sweden
2Vice Chairman of 3GPP SA5 & Rapporteur, Orange, France
3Chairman of 3GPP SA5 SWG & Rapporteur, Nokia, France
4Vice Chairman of 3GPP SA5 SWG & Rapporteur, Huawei, China
5Rapporteur of 3GPP SA5, China Mobile, China
6Rapporteur of 3GPP SA5, Nokia, USA
7Rapporteur of 3GPP SA5, Intel, USA
8Rapporteur of 3GPP SA5, Ericsson, Ireland
9Rapporteur of 3GPP SA5, Huawei, China
10Rapporteur of 3GPP SA5, Nokia, China
11Rapporteur of 3GPP SA5, ZTE, China

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Abstract: In December 2017, 3GPP passed two major milestones for 5G by approving the first set of 5G New Radio (NR) specifications and by putting in place the 5G Phase 1 System Architecture. These achievements have brought about the need for new management standards, as 5G adds to the ever-growing size and complexity of telecom systems. 3GPP management standards from Working Group (WG) SA5 are approaching another major milestone for 5G. With our studies on the 5G management architecture, network slicing and charging completed last year,we are now well under way with the normative work for the first phase in 3GPP Release 15, which includes building up a new service-oriented management architecture and all the necessary functionalities for management and charging for 5G networks. SA5’s current work also includes several other work/study items such as management of Quality of Experience (QoE) measurement collection and new technologies for RESTful management protocols. However, this article will focus on the new 5G Rel-15 architecture and the main functionalities, including charging.

River Publishers: Journal of ICT Standardization