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Journal of Mobile Multimedia

Editor-in-Chief: Kwang-Cheng Chen, University of South Florida, USA


ISSN: 1550-4646 (Print Version),

ISSN: 1550-4654 (Online Version)
Vol: 11   Issue: Combined Issue 3 & 4

Published In:   November 2015

Publication Frequency: Quarterly


Search Available Volume and Issue for Journal of Mobile Multimedia


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Virtual 3D Restoration of an Extinct Village and its Eye-Tracking Assessment


Pavla Dedkova and Stanislav Popelka

PalackĂ˝ University in Olomouc, Czech Republic

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 7642KB ]

Abstract: The objective of the project was to create 3D visualization of an extinct village and its evaluation using eye-tracking. As an area of interest, the extinct village of ?istá was selected. The village was located in Karlovy Vary Region in the Czech Republic and was destroyed in 1948. The village was destroyed to primarily to establish a military training area. Secondly, it was destroyed to create an instructional video for military purposes called “Fight in the settlement”. During the creation of this video, the village was destroyed. The main content of the project was to create an interactive web application that includes a 3D model of the extinct village of ?istá. As base data, aerial photos made in 1947 and stable cadastre from 1841 were used. Buildings were made according to historical photographs and screen shots from the instructional video “Fight in a settlement.” The resulting 3D model and underlying data were loaded into Google Earth API and are available for the general public now. The second part of the project was to test the model usability using eye-tracking. In total, 28 respondents participated in the experiment. The experiment contained two parts – the overall views of the village and tasks, where users were searching for a particular building. Recorded eye-tracking data were statistically and graphically analyzed. The results indicate that a 3D model was the most usable type of visualization for respondents. A link to the application was placed on the web site of the project of an educational trail about extinct villages in the Slavkov Forest area. The created 3D model and application present the extinct village of ?istá to potential visitors of the educational trail.

Keywords: 3D, Visualization, Reconstruction, Eye-tracking, Cartography

Automatic Detection of Points of Interest Using Spatio-temporal Data Mining


Anahid Basiri1, Pouria Amirian1, Stuart Marsh1 and Terry Moore2

1Nottingham Geospatial Institute, the University of Nottingham, UK
2Ordnance Survey, Southampton, UK

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 448KB ]

Abstract: Location Based Services (LBS) are still in their infancy but they are evolving rapidly. It is expected to have more intelligent, adaptive and predictive LBS applications in the future, which can detect users’ intentions and understand their needs, demands and responses. To have such intelligent services, LBS applications should be able to understand users’ behaviours, preferences and interests automatically and without needing users to be asked to specify them. Then, using users’ current situations and previously extracted behaviours, interests and preferences, LBS applications could provide the most appropriate sets of services. This paper shows the application of data mining techniques over anonymous sets of tracking data to recognise mobility behaviours and extract some navigational user preferences such as Point of Interests (PoI) in a format of if-then rules, spatial patterns, models and knowledge. Such knowledge, patterns and models are being used in intelligent navigational services, including navigational decision support applications, smart tourist guides and navigational suggestion making apps.

Keywords: Spatio-temporal data mining, Navigation, Trajectory, Knowledge extraction

Towards Activity Recognition of Learners in On-line Lecture


Hiromichi Abe, Takuya Kamizono, Kazuya Kinoshita, Kensuke Baba, Shigeru Takano, and Kazuai Murakami

Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395, Japan

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 312KB ]

Abstract: Understanding the states of learners at a lecture is useful for improving the quality of the lecture. A video camera with an infrared sensor Kinect has been widely studied and proved to be useful for some kinds of activity recognition. However, learners in a lecture usually do not act with large moving. This paper evaluates Kinect for use of activity recognition of learners. The authors considered four activities for detecting states of a learner in an on-line lecture, and collected the data with the activities by a Kinect. They repaired the collected data by padding some lacks, and then applied machine learning methods to the data. As the result, they obtained the accuracy 0.985 of the activity recognition. The result shows that Kinect is applicable also to the activity recognition of learners in an on-line lecture.

Keywords: Activity recognition, Kinect, data mining, e-learning.

A Secure-Aware Call Admission Control Scheme for Wireless Cellular Networks Using Fuzzy Logic and Its Performance Evaluation


Takaaki Inaba1, Donald Elmazi1, Shinji Sakamoto1, Tetsuya Oda1, Makoto Ikeda2 and Leonard Barolli2

1Graduate School of Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology (FIT), 3-30-1, Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 811-0295, Japan
2Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology (FIT), 3-30-1 Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 811-0295, Japan

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 195KB ]

Abstract: As the demand for multimedia services over the air has been steadily increasing over the last few years, wireless multimedia networks have been a very active research area. To support various integrated services with a certain Quality of Service (QoS) require- ment Call Admission Control (CAC) is a good strategy. The CAC is one of the resource management functions, which regulates network access to ensure QoS provisioning. How- ever, the decision for CAC is very challenging issue due to user mobility, limited radio spectrum, and multimedia traffic characteristics. In this paper, we propose a secure- aware CAC scheme for wireless cellular networks using fuzzy logic. For evaluation of proposed scheme, we implement a new simulator called Fuzzy CAC Simulator (FCACS). We evaluated by simulations the performance of proposed CAC scheme and show that the proposed scheme has a good behavior.

Keywords: Cellular Networks; CAC; Fuzzy Logic; Security.

A Cellular Automaton for Traffic Jam Caused by Railroad Crossing


Kaoru Fujioka and Chihiro Suwa

International College of Arts and Sciences, Fukuoka Women's University 1-1-1 Kasumigaoka, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8529, Japan

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 9215KB ]

Abstract: A cellular automaton has been used to simulate traffic ow and it has been shown that a cellular automaton is useful to simulate traffic ow. Kashii Sando in Fukuoka City is known as a notoriously busy road with a busy railroad crossing. Therefore, we focus on the road and introduce a cellular automaton model to simulate the bottleneck situation due to the embarrassing railroad crossing. Following the traffic regulations in Japan, we have to stop in front of the railroad crossing even if no train is in the railroad crossing. Then we introduce parameters for the stop time of cars in front of the crossing when no train is in the crossing. Furthermore, parameters such as traffic volume are introduced and set based on the real traffic data. Three types of experiments are performed, each of which has the same total interception time by the crossing. We show that a traffic jam is considerably affected by the time that cars are stopped at the crossing and the railroad crossing signal is effective to reduce traffic jam for Kashii Sando.

Keywords: cellular automaton, traffic jam, railroad crossing.

Design and Implementation of Open Campus Event System with Voice Interaction Agent


Takahiro Uchiya1, Masaki Yoshida2, Daisuke Yamamoto1, Ryota Nishimura3 and Ichi Takumi1

1Nagoya Institute of Technology, CREST JST, Japan
2Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan
3Keio University, Japan

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 798KB ]

Abstract: Many universities are positively performing open-campus activities as events that provide campus information for recruitment of high school students. However, open-campus activities present some problems. We propose a system to hold an open-campus event with a spoken dialogue toolkit that functions on smartphones. This method can reduce printing costs by displaying a browser with information that would otherwise be published in the brochure. Furthermore, by guiding the course with a voice interaction agent expressed using a 3D character model, GPS, Google Maps, and walking-path estimation system, no guide person is necessary. After designing and implementing an open-campus event system using these functions, we evaluated the proposed system through experimentation.

Keywords: Open-campus event system, Agent-based campus guide, Voice interaction agent

A Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection and User Identification System for Tor Networks: Performance Evaluation for Different Number of Hidden Units using Friedman Test


Taro Ishitaki1, Tetsuya Oda1, Yi Liu1, Donald Elmazi1, Keita Matsuo2 and Leonard Barolli3

1Graduate School of Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology (FIT), 3-30-1, Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 811-0295, Japan
2Fukuoka Prefectural Fukuoka Technical High School, 2-19-1 Arae, Sawara-Ku, Fukuoka 814-8520, Japan
3Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology (FIT), 3-30-1 Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 811?0295, Japan

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 2316KB ]

Abstract: Due to the amount of anonymity afforded to users of the Tor infrastructure, Tor has become a useful tool for malicious users. With Tor, the users are able to compromise the non-repudiation principle of computer security. Also, the potentially hackers may launch attacks such as DDoS or identity theft behind Tor. For this reason, there are needed new systems and models to detect the intrusion in Tor networks. In this paper, we present the application of Neural Networks (NNs) and Friedman test for intrusion detection and user identification in Tor networks. We used the Back-propagation NN and constructed a Tor server, a Deep Web browser (Tor client) and a Surface Web browser. Then, the client sends the data browsing to the Tor server using the Tor network. We used Wireshark Network Analyzer to get the data and then used the Back-propagation NN to make the approximation. We present many simulation results for different number of hidden units considering Tor client and Surface Web client. The simulation results show that our simulation system has a good approximation and can be used for intrusion detection and user identification in Tor networks.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Friedman Test, User Identification, Intrusion Detection, Tor Networks, Deep Web, Hidden Unit

A Flexible Read-Write Abortion Protocol to Prevent Illegal Information Flow among Objects


Shigenari Nakamura1, Dilawaer Duolikun1, Tomoya Enokido1 and Makoto Takizawa2

1Department of Advanced Sciences, Hosei University, 3-7-2, Kajino-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, 184-8584, Japan
2Faculty of Business Administration, Rissho University, 4-2-16, Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo, 141-8602, Japan

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 327KB ]

Abstract: In information systems, types of objects like multimedia objects are manipulated in var- ious applications like mobile systems. Here, information in objects may ow to another object. Suppose a transaction reads data in an object o1 and then writes data to another object o2. If a transaction reads the data in the object o2, the transaction can read data in the object o1 even if the transaction is not granted a read access right on the object o1. Here, the transaction illegally reads data in the object o2. Here, information in the object o1 might illegally ow to the object o2. A transaction illegally writes data to an object after illegally reading data in some object. In addition, we consider a suspicious object whose data is not allowed to ow to another object. A transaction suspiciously reads data in a suspicious object. A transaction impossibly writes data to an object after reading the data in a suspicious object. Write-abortion (WA) and read-write-abortion (RWA) protocols to prevent illegal information ow are already proposed in our pre- vious studies. In the WA protocol, a transaction is aborted once issuing an illegal or impossible write operation to an object. Read operations are meaninglessly performed since the read operations are undone due to the abortion of the transaction. In the RWA protocol, a transaction is aborted once issuing an illegal read or impossible write opera- tion to an object. Here, read operations to be performed after an illegal read operations are lost since a transaction is aborted just on issuing an illegal read operation. In this paper, we newly propose a exible read-write abortion (FRWA) protocol to reduce the number of meaningless and lost read operations. Here, a transaction is aborted with some probability if the transaction illegally reads data in an object. We evaluate the FRWA protocols compared with the WA and RWA protocols. We show the execution time of each transaction in the FRWA protocols is shorter than the WA protocols and more number of read operations can be performed in the RWA protocols.

Keywords: Illegal write; Suspicious read; Impossible write; Meaningless read; Lost read; Information ow control; Flexible read-write-abortion (FRWA) protocols;

Performance Evaluation of High-Speed Communication Method by Compactification of Design Data


Shuji Shoji and Akio Koyama

Yamagata University, Japan

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 634KB ]

Abstract: A large number of isomorphic polygons are included in design data of large scale integrated circuit. Fast searching and classification for isomorphic polygons in these design data are able to apply to compactification of design data. Compactification of design data has a merit for communication via networks. So, we use expression method using a geometric invariant feature value for polygon. This method does not be affected for rotation and reduced scale. The Geometric Hashing method is known widely as an object recognition method using geometric invariant feature amount which expresses feature of shape. However, this method has drawbacks which increase computational complexity and memory usage amount with increasing of feature points. To solve these issues, we propose a fast and high accuracy search method for isomorphic polygon and apply to compactification of design data. From evaluation results of the proposed method, we verified that the proposed method can compact the design data by performing fast search and classification for isomorphic polygons, and reduce the communication quantity drastically.

Keywords: Isomorphic polygon, geometric invariant feature value, geometric hashing method, high-speed communication

Emotion and Mood Recognition in Response to Video


Dini Handayani, Abdul Wahab, and Hamwira Yaacob

Computer Science Department, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 2985KB ]

Abstract: This paper presents a subject-dependent homogenous emotion recognition method using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in response to video contents, and a correlation between emotions and moods of subjects in resting state. In the recent years, there has been a trend towards recognizing emotions invoked from watching videos. Thus, in this study, two video clips with explicit emotional contents from movies and online resources were used, and the EEG results were recorded from four subjects as they watched these clips. The best accuracies of 60.71% for valence and 63.73% for arousal were obtained using a Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The results show that MFCC and MLP techniques are applicable in emotion recognition. The result shows that the mood can be recognized from opened eyes or closed eyes experiment of a subject. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that a positive video content can stimulate a subject into being in positive emotional state even when the subject was in bad mood. The emotional state in response to watching a video was shown to be correlated with Self-Assessment Manikin analysis.

Keywords: Affective computing, mood, emotion recognition, video clip, EEG

Software Defined Radio for Audio Signal Processing in Project Based Learning


Octarina Nur Samijayani, Dwi Astharini, and Ary Syahriar

Universitas Al Azhar Indonesia, Jakarta

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 490KB ]

Abstract: In communication and signal processing course there are some challenges in explaining the basic theory of signal and how to process the signal as well. Educational tool to demonstrate how the system works is important and more attractive to improve the understanding of student. Software Defined Radio (SDR) brings the concept of software-based processing. This paper implements the using of SDR as the innovative teaching method to demonstrate the fundamental concept in signal processing course. Students build the audio signal processing projects on SDR platform using GNU Radio. Three interesting projects including the adjustment of sampling rate, DSB-AM modulation, and audio processing for gender identification are simulated using GNU Radio software. This Project Based Learning shows the positive result of the implementation of SDR in raising the student interest and motivation. Furthermore this study opens wide application of SDR based technique especially for education.

Keywords: SDR, Signal Processing, Project Based Learning, GNU Radio

Simple Blocking Oscillator Performance Analysis for Voltage Enhancement


Dewanto Harjunowibowot1, Restu Widhi Hastuti2, Kenny Anindia Ratopo2, Anif Jamaluddin1 and Syubhan Annur3

1ESMART, Physics Education Department, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia
2Physics Education Department, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia
3FKIP MIPA, Lambung Mangkurat University, Indonesia

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 140KB ]

Abstract: An application Blocking Oscillator (BO) on a battery to power a system LED lamp light detector has been built and compared with a standard system used phone cellular adapter as the power supply. The performance analysis was carried out to determine the efficiency of the blocking oscillator and its potency to be adopted in an electronic appliance using low voltage and current from a battery. Measurements were taken using an oscilloscope, a multimeter, and a light meter. The results show that the system generates electrical pulses of 1.5 to 7.6 VDC and powering the system normally. The system generates 3.167 mW powers to produce the intensity of 176 Lux. On the contrary, the standard system needs 1.8mW to produce 5 Lux. A LED usually takes at least 60mW to get 7150 Lux. Therefore, the system used a simple blocking oscillator seems potential to provide high voltage for powering electronic appliances with low current.

Keywords: blocking oscillator, characteristic, efficiency, LED, pulse

Zero Padding and Cyclic Prefix for OFDM on Multipath Rayleigh Fading Channel


Dwi Astharini, Tyas Bastian, Rikah Mustika, Octarina Nur Samijayani and Riri Safitri

Universitas Al Azhar Indonesia, Jakarta

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 232KB ]

Abstract: This article report simulation of OFDM over various multipath Rayleigh fading channel, with dicussion on the guard interval method. Techniques of guard interval employed are Cyclic Prefix and Zero Padding, each with a range of ratio from 1:1 to 16:1. The transmission are simulated over Rayleigh fading channel applying 1 to 4 paths in comparison. Observations on BER value for OFDM transceiver is done with 16- QAM as the base modulation. Overall, implementation of zero padding for guard interval in this work has resulted on better performance in compare with those of cyclic prefix. With zero padding of 8:1 on 64 packet data, it is optimum in compare with variety of others. The deviation of BER is however less than 0.001 within each channel type with various guard interval. For Rayleigh environment, the error increased significantly up to 2 paths, but tended to saturate for 3 and 4 paths.

Keywords: OFDM, Zero Padding, Rayleigh fading, Multipath, BER

SDR UAI, Virtual Machine for a Software Defined Radio Toolpack


Winangsari Pradani, Firdus Mubarik, and Dwi Astharini

Universitas Al Azhar Indonesia, Jakarta

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 317KB ]

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the implementation of a virtual system or virtual machine, named Software Defined Radio – University of Al Azhar Indonesia (SDR-UAI), that can encapsulate the GNU Radio installation process. GNU Radio is a development toolkit software used by electrical engineering students to learn and experience various radio systems without processing the hardware. GNU Radio and Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) from Ettus Research is considerably a good combination of SDR system that can be used in a telecommunication lab. However, along with this preference, this combination poses the constraints in installation process due to its native operating system (OS) and growth characteristic. With conventional method, the process can be very complicated and painful, mostly ended with an unsuccessful installation. By using virtualization technology, the steps conducted in installation process can be reduced by 80% and it takes less than one hour compare with as much of 2 days in conventional method. A user interface analysis based on task network model used to measure the effectivity of this SDR-UAI.

Keywords: VirtualBox, GNU Radio, USRP, SDR, task network analysis

River Publishers: Journal of Mobile Multimedia