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NB!ICT

Innovation, Regulation, Multi Business Model Innovation and Technology

Editors-in-Chief:
Knud Erik Skouby, Center for Communication, Media and Information Technologies (CMI), Aalborg University in Copenhagen, Denmark
Peter Lindgren, CTIF GLOBAL CAPSULE (CGC), Aarhus University in Herning, Denmark


ISSN: 1902-097X (Print Version),

ISSN: 1902-0988 (Online Version)
Vol: 2018   Issue: 1

Published In:   September 2018

Publication Frequency: Continuous Article Publication


Search Available Volume and Issue for NB!ICT


Journal Description        Read Full Articles        Editorial Board        Subscription        Indexed

Digital Transformation of Public Administration Services in Denmark: A Process Tracing Case Study

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.014
Ada Scupola

Department of Social Science and Business, Roskilde University, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 439KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a process tracing study of digital transformation in Denmark. The study is part of a European Horizon 2020 project entitled Co-Val (Understanding value co-creation in public services for transforming European public administrations). The paper traces the development of policies and stakeholders involvement that have contributed to achieving the digital transformation in Denmark’s public administration as it is reflected by the current DESI index over the last two decades [1]. The study uses a qualitative methodology in the form of case study [2]. In particular, a longitudinal case study and process tracing methodology is used. The data are secondary data consisting of digital transformation strategies, policies and related documents and press releases retrieved on governmental websites. The case study provides an overview of Denmark’s digitalization position in relation to the rest of EU, the basic digital policies and strategies that the Danish government has undertaken over the last two decades as well as an account of the key stakeholders involved in such a process. The case study is important because it sheds light on the digital transformation process in the most advanced country according to the DESI Index and therefore it presents some lessons other countries might learn from.

Keywords: Digital transformation, e-government, process tracing, Public administration services, digitalization, ICT.

Analysis of Sharing Economy Services: Initial Findings from Sharing Cities Sweden

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.013
Jan Markendahl1, Mohammad Istiak Hossain1, Kes Mccormick2, Tove Lund3, Jon Möller4 and Philip Näslund5

1Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
2 International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Sweden
3City of Gothenburg, Sweden
4City of Stockholm, Sweden
5City of Umeå, Sweden

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1043KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: In this paper, we analyze different types of sharing economy services. The sharing economy is a wide concept where many types of activities and services can be included. Overall we aim to identify recurrent patterns but also similarities and differences between different types of sharing services. We discuss a multitude of different services, e.g. car pools, bike pools, sharing of tools and equipment, sharing of land for farming, sharing of parking and homes, and co-working spaces. It is a mix of different set ups regarding if it is commercial or community driven, type of service provider, usage fee or for free, open or closed access.

We look into drivers for different types of actors to use different types of sharing. In addition we look into how sharing services are offered and the platform implications.We study a set of sharing services in cities in Sweden. Primary data is collected from interviews with providers of sharing services and representatives of cities. Using an existing framework, we look into different types of “sharing economies”, and the “close cousins” of on-demand economy, second-hand economy and product service economy. Using the characteristics “idle capacity”, “temporal use”, and “consumer to consumer” it is possible to distinguish cases not being typical sharing economy.

Second hand and recycling of goods is not about temporary use, while car and bike pools, car rental, co-working spaces are not about idle capacity, the resources are there in order to be borrowed or rented. Using an open service platform any resource, provider, or seller as well any seller/user/renter can connect to the service; examples are eBay, Hygglo, and GrowGothenburg. For bike and pools, car rental and co-working spaces any user can rent but the resources are closely related to the renting service, external resources cannot be connected to the platform.

Keywords: Sharing services, Sharing economy, Business models, Digital platforms.

Internet Lite for Sustainable Development

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.012
Josef Noll1,2, Wisam A. Mansour1,*, Christine Holst3, Sudhir Dixit1, Felix K. Sukums4,9, Helena A. Ngowi5, Danica Radovanović1, Elibariki R. Mwakapeje6, Maurice Isabwe7, Andrea S.Winkler3,8 and Bernard Ngowi4

1Basic Internet Foundation, Kjeller, Norway
2Dept. of Technology Systems, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
3Centre for Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
4Muhimbili Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
5Dept. of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
6Dept. of Food Safety and Infectious Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Adamstua Campus, Oslo, Norway
7Dept. of Information and Communication Technology, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway
8Center for Global Health, Department of Neurology, Technical University of Munich, Germany
9Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 344KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The Digital Divide is one of the key challenges for mankind. Despite attempts to digitally include people, the divide is bigger than ever. This contribution [1] to a sustainable future promotes “Internet lite” as the new paradigm for providing everyone with the opportunity to participate in the digital society. The current paper first addresses the reasons for the digital divide, thereafter addresses free access to information as catalyst for the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and provides the path towards “Internet lite for all”.

Keywords: Digital inclusion, sustainable

Universal Service in a Digital World: The Demise of Postal Services

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.011
Morten Falch and Anders Henten

CMI, ES, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 296KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The paper is concerned with the demise of postal services in light of the development of digital information and communication services. To an increasing degree digital services substitute for postal letter services, while digital and postal services complement one another with respect to parcel services. Denmark is used as case country.

Keywords: Digitalization, postal services, substitution, Denmark, country comparison.

Security Challenges and Solutions in the Internet of Things

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.010
Jari Porras, Jayden Khakurel, Antti Knutas and Jouni Pänkäläinen

Lapeenranta University of Technology, Finland

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 454KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is emerging and evolving rapidly. Various technical solutions for multiple purposes have been proposed for its implementation. The rapid evolution and utilization of IoT technologies has raised security concerns and created a feeling of uncertainty among IoT adopters. The purpose of this article is to examine the current research trends related to security concerns of the IoT concept and provide a detailed understanding of the topic. We thus applied two types of literature reviews as the methodological approach. The manual systematic mapping study was performed over 3500 articles, out of which 38 were selected for a closer examination. Out of these articles, the concerns, solutions and research gaps for the security in the IoT concept were extracted. This mapping study identified 9 main concerns and 11 solutions. The findings also revealed challenges, such as secure privacy management and cloud integration that still require efficient solutions. The results of the manual systematic mapping study were extended by using automatic content analysis tools on two datasets (–2016 and –2018) fromWeb of Science. This content analysis produces trends over the years on IoT security.

Keywords: Internet of things, Security, IoT threats, security solutions.

Hybrid Cloud for Healthcare Data Sharing and Mobile Access: An Architectural Overview

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.009
Kenneth Kwame Azumah, Reza Tadayoni and Lene Tolstrup Sørensen

Centre for Communications, Media and Info. Technologies, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 447KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: A hybrid cloud computing architecture that places the mobile device or thin clients first is the logical choice especially in regions with low fixed broadband but high mobile penetration rates. The hybrid cloud model combines the benefits of computing resource elasticity in the public cloud whilst maintaining control of sensitive data and mission-critical applications mainly in a private cloud infrastructure. One industry that stands to benefit from extending mobile computing with hybrid cloud infrastructure is the healthcare industry where clinicians need the ability to access healthcare data from different locations and across multiple devices. This paper identifies a hybrid cloud architecture to support mobile device access and satisfy specific business requirements using the case of a selected hospital in Ghana. In the design of the hybrid cloud architecture the functional and non-functional viewpoints are considered using a case study where the selected hospital is used to conceptually define the requirements and set-up of a hybrid cloud architecture. The case study approach is used to illustrate the practical challenges and limitations for a hybrid cloud architecture in a developing country. The suitability of the design was validated using the metrics of availability, reliability, response time and throughput.

Keywords: Hybrid cloud, cloud architecture, mobile cloud, cloud computing in healthcare.

Institutional Legitimacy and Digital Public Cross-Border Service Delivery Between Denmark/Sweden and Denmark/Germany

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.008
Idongesit Williams, Morten Falch and Reza Tadayoni

CMI, Electronic Systems, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 1980KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of institutional legitimacy in the development and delivery of digital public cross-border services in the EU. The digital public cross-border services between Denmark/Sweden and Denmark/Germany are the test cases that are investigated. Empirical data was gathered from two organizations namely, Region Sønderjylland – Schleswig and the Øresunddirekt Sweden. Both organizations are informational and advisory services that promote public digital cross-border services at the Danish/German and Danish/Swedish border. The findings point to institutional legitimacy promoting the development and delivery of national digital public infrastructure and service delivery. The findings also points to institutional legitimacy acting as a barrier to the development and delivery of digital public infrastructure and services across border.

Keywords: e-government, cross-border services, institutional legitimacy, internationalization, e-services.

Defining Tech: An Examination of How the ‘Technology’ Economy is Measured

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.007
C. A. Hooton

The George Washington University Institute of Public Policy, USA

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 171KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The paper conducts a comprehensive review and critical comparison of the empirical methodologies for defining the high-technology sector (or ‘tech’) in social science research and analysis. It consolidates both qualitative (expert-based) approaches and quantitative (threshold-based) approaches for the broader audience of researchers. In the quantitative approaches, the paper identifies two accepted metrics and two loosely defined criteria used in distinguishing tech. The paper finds a generally consistent theoretical conceptualization for how to distinguish tech from other sectors, but inconsistency and no consensus on the implementation of that theory in applied research methods. The paper proposes two steps forward for future methodologies by identifying of a set of consensus industries present across tech definitions and by arguing for a continuum-based approach to identifying technology intensity in industries, businesses, and products/services.

Keywords: Technology sector, digital economy, online platforms, technology theory, measurement of technology.

Cross-border e-Government Services in the Baltic Sea Region – Status and Barriers

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.006
Morten Falch, Idongesit Williams and Reza Tadayoni

CMI, Electronic Systems, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 214KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the status of cross-border e-Government business services within the Baltic Sea Region, and to identify the most important barriers towards further development in this area. Empirical data for the study are collected through 60 interviews with international companies with operations within the area. The research is made as a part of the EU funded Interreg project DIGINNO. The findings point to language and identification/ authentication as major obstacles in development of cross-border G2B services, however when these obstacles are overcome the service design issue and adaptation of local e-government services to the needs of users from other countries will become a major challenge.

Keywords: e-Government, Baltic Sea Region, cross-border business services.

The Boundaries of Service Automation: Four Types of Service Encounters

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.005
Jannick Kirk Sørensen and Knud Erik Skouby

Center for Communication, Media and Information Technologies (CMI), Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 398KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: In this paper, we present a model for the characterization of ICT services, based on the particular properties ICT has as design material. The paper aims at unifying traditions from service research and service encounter research with the research traditions from Human Computer Interaction (HCI), interaction design, and user experience research. We argue that the ICT in ICT-based service encounter no longer should be seen as neutral or transparent tool, but as an element that transform the service encounter. Based on a classification of four types of service encounters, we identify the limitations to service automation. The present paper is a revised version of the unpublished HICCS 2015 workshop paper “Characterization of ICT Services in a beyond 2020 Perspective” by the same authors.

Keywords: Service Encounters, Service Recovery, Service Design, ICTbased services, ICT-centric services, User Experience.

Valter’s Seven Forces; a Model for Analyzing the Forces Affecting the Business Model Innovation Process

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.004
Per Valter, Peter Lindgren and Ramjee Prasad

Aarhus University, Business Development and Technology, Herning, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 445KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Today’s business environments are being subject to excrescent influence by new competing business models and ever increasing technological possibilities. This trend is unlikely to change in the near future. In fact, it would most likely just increase even more, therefor an successful embedded multi business model innovation processes within a business, would without any doubt be able to increase the likelihood for success for that business, therefore better understanding and measuring the multi business model innovation processes itself is of utmost importance. This paper propose the modelValter’s Seven Forces. The model is intended for analyzing the dominating forces with high influence and effect on the business model innovation process, either positively or negatively, depending on the situation of the force. The Seven Forces in the model affect the probability for success of a business model innovation process. The affect from the forces can be either positive or negative depending on the situation. For instance, if the group dynamics contain conflicts and interpersonal power battles, the probability for success of the business model innovation process is affected negatively; however, if the group dynamics contain respect, collaboration and harmony, the probability for success of the business model innovation process is affected positively. Furthermore, this paper examines the engineering lab set-up with its laboratory measurement tools used at the Scandinavia Biogas2020 conference 2017 in Skive, Denmark to collect data regarding the business model innovation processes in three business model innovations laboratory environments. Students from Denmark, Norway and Sweden was involved in three multi business model innovation processes with three different real-life business cases.

Keywords: Valter's Seven Forces, Business Model, Business Model Innovation, Disruptive Business Models, Business Model Innovation Process

Millennials’ Expectations to 5G

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.003
Knud Erik Skouby, Lene Tolstrup Sørensen and Samant Khajuria

Aalborg University, Center for Communication, Media and IT Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 382KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The Millennial generation born between 1982 and 2004 has now come of age and has entered the scene as a very influential group due to their number and background as the first generation co-existing with a digital life. This experience gives the Millennial generation a unique basis to formulate requirements and expectations to future digital trends. An illustrative conclusion drawn below is that the Millennials, do not foresee the 5G use cases presented in the typical 5G visions to be of any interest or usage to them. They do not want to pay for these services. Furthermore, privacy and security are seen to be of specific concern to the Millennials discussing 5G.

Keywords: Millennials, 5G, Requirements.

Sensing Multi Business Model Innovation via Advanced Sensor Technology

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.002
Peter Lindgren, Per Valter and Gitte Kingo

Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 5545KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: The ability to innovate Business Models (BM) and do Multi Business ModelInnovation (MBMI) has become more complicated today, but also a very hot topic in many businesses and even for governments. As BM’s lifetime are becoming shorter and shorter, BM’s are also changing typologies and a larger part of these becomes disruptive. Danish Government already in 2017 formed a disruption council – as a reflection on this evolvement – its primary task was to discuss, analyze and come up with proposals for how businesses and society should prepare for future MBMI, disruptive BM’s and Business Model Ecosystems (BMES) [1 – 4, 6, 7, 16].

Sensing BM’s seems to hold some solutions to meet this development. The academic classification of Sensing BM’s and Sensing MBMI have until now been very fragmented defined. The Sensing BM and Sensing MBMI have not been clearly defined, also compared to other types of BM’s and Business Model Innovation (BMI). Several businesses believe they innovate Sensing BM’s (SBM), Operate Industrial 4.0 with advanced sensors – but are challenged when asked to classify SBM and SBMI.

The paper addresses – when can a BM be classified as a SBM. In relation to this topic – When can a business be classified as doing SBMI. The aim of the paper is:
  1. to add to the development of conceptual framework models and typologies [10 – 12 ] for classifying SBM’s and disruptive, radical and incremental SBM’s and SBMIs.
  2. to add to the development of MBMI framework and language using advanced sensor and wireless technologies.


The preliminary research was supported by a BM and BMI framework [29], combined with advanced sensing technology, enabling researchers to observe and do experiments with SBM’s and SBMI.

Keywords: Sensing Business Models, Sensing Business Model Innovation, Sensor Technology, Digitalization of Business Models and Business Model Innovation.

User Perceived Privacy Mental Models of Users’ Perception of App Usage

doi: https://doi.org/10.13052/nbjict1902-097X.2018.001
Lene Sørensen

Center for Communication, Media and Information Technologies, Aalborg University, Denmark

Abstract: [+]    |    Download File [ 394KB ]    |   Read Article Online

Abstract: Information privacy is jeopardized almost every time a person uses digital services or applications. The European General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR, recognizes that to empower the users and put focus on privacy, in the future all software (as well as applications) must provide transparency and consent so that the users are protected and are able to manage their privacy in contrast of today. This paper researches the perception of privacy in use of three selected applications; Endomondo, MobilePay and Roskilde Festival apps. In an empirical study, participants have been instructed to draw mental models of different use situations of these applications and to discuss where there needs to be a privacy notification or other to inform the user about the sharing of private data – as announced by the GDPR framework. The work constitutes the first step in a process of understanding the design challenge of the GDPR and for suggesting privacy related design for the interface design with a focus on the user experience.

Keywords: Privacy, mental models, GDPR, privacy notices, usable privacy. Journal of

River Publishers: NB!ICT